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Ma sorse poscia il solitario Piero, Che privato fra' principi a consiglio Sedea, del gran passaggio autor primiero. A quella autorità che, in molti e vafi D' opinion quasi librata, è pari.

Onde sian compartite opre ed uffici. S' era egli fermo, e si vedea davanti Passar distinti i cavalieri e i fanti. Suoni e risplenda la lor fama antica.

Neil' isola di Francia eletti fóro. Fra quattro fiumi ampio paese e bello. Poi duo pastor de' popoli spiegaro Le squadre lor, Guglielmo ed Ademaro. Sotto r elmo premendo i lunghi crini Esercita dell' arme or 1' uso fero. Dalla città d' Grange e dai confini Quattrocento guerrier scelse il primiero ; Ma guida quei di Poggio in guerra l'altro. Numero egual, ne men nell' armi scaltro. II 40 Baldo vin poscia in mostra addur si vede Co' Bolognesi suoi quei del germano, Che le sue genti il pio fratel gli cede Or eh' ei de' capitani è capitano.

Van con lui quattrocento; e triplicati Conduce Baldovino in sella armati. Conta costui per genitor latino Degli avi Estensi un lungo ordine e certo ; Ma german di cognome e di domjno. Nella gran casa de' Guelfoni è inserto: Acquisti ei giunse gloriosi e grandi. Fur cinquemila alla partenza; a pena De' Persi avanzo il terzo or qui ne mena.

Terra di biade e d' animai ferace: Questi dall' alte selve irsuti manda La divisa dal mondo ultima Irlanda. Era pagana, e là venuta anch' ella Per r istessa cagion di ristorarse. Amor eh' appena è nato. Già grande vola, e già trionfa armato. Questi arde, e fuor di spene: Gli ottocento a cavallo, a cui fa scorta. Lasciar le piagge di Campagna amene.

Pompa maggior della natura, e i colli Che vagheggia il Tirren fertili e molli. Pendon spade ritorte all' un de' lati; Suonano al tergo lor faretre ed archi: Asciutti hanno i cavalli, al corso usati, Alla fatica invitti, al cibo parchi: E pur quasi a spettacolo sedesti. Lenta aspettando de' grandi atti il fine. Or se tu se' vii serva, è il tuo servaggio Non ti lagnar giustizia, e non oltraggio.

Son qui gli avventurieri invitti eroi, Terror dell' Asia, e fólgori di Marte. Taccia Argo i Mini, e taccia Artù que' suoi Erranti, che di sogni empion le carte; Ch' ogni antica memoria appo costoro Perde: Ei di virilità grave e maturo Mostra in fresco vigor chiome canute; Mostra, quasi d'onor vestigi degni,. Di non brutte ferite impressi segni. Gernando v' è, nato di re norvegi, Che scettri vanta e titoli e corone.

Ruggier di Balnavilla infra gli egregi La vecchia fama, ed Engerlan ripone ; E celebrati son fra i più gagliardi Un Gentonio, un Rambaldo, e duo Gherardi. Non fia eh' Obizo il Tosco aggravi al fondo Chi fa delle memorie avare prede; Ne i tre frati lombardi al chiaro mondo Involi, Achille, Sforza e Palamede: Ivi si fé costei guerriera ardita; Va sempre affissa al caro fianco ; e pende Da un fato solo e T una e 1' altra vita: Colpo eh' ad un sol noccia, unqua non scende, Ma indiviso è il dolor d'ogni ferita; E spesso è l'un ferito, e l'altro langue; E versa 1' alma quel, se questa il sangue.

Se '1 miri fulminar nell' arme avvolto. Marte lo stimi ; Amor, se scopre il volto. Nobilissima, fuga, e che 1' imiti Ben degna alcun magnanimo nipote.

Tre anni son ch'è in guerra; e intempestiva Molle piuma del mento appena usciva. Reggea Tolosa, e scelse infra Pirene E fra Garonna e l'océàn suoi fanti. Non è gente robusta o faticosa, Sebben tutta di ferro ella riluce. La terra molle e lieta e dilettosa Simili a se gli abitator produce. Impeto fan nelle battaglie prime; Ma di leggier poi langue, e si reprime.

Lieto eh' a tanta impresa il Ciel sortillo, Ove rinnovi il prisco onor degli avi, O mostri almen eh' alla virtù latina O nulla manca, o sol la disciplina. Parla al fedel suo messaggiero Enrico: Prence è de' Dani, e mena un grande stuolo Sin dai paesi sottoposti al polo.

Che, già più d' una volta a noi promesso, È per ragion di patrio anco dovuto. Toglie, affrettando il suo partir, congedo; E tregua fa co' suoi pensier Goffredo. Di trombe udissi e di tamburi un suono, Ond' al cammino ogni guerrier s'esorte. Non muro cinto di profonda fossa.

Quante e quai sian le squadre ella ridice; Narra il nome e '1 valor de' più gagliardi; Narra i lor vanti, e con terribil faccia Gli usurpatori di Sion minaccia. Pende ad ogn' aura incerta di romore Ogni orecchia sospesa ed ogni mente; E un confuso bisbiglio entro e di fuore Trascorre i campi e la città dolente. Ma il vecchio re ne' già vicin perigli Volge nel dubbio cor feri consigli.

La deb il parte e la minore in Cristo, La grande e forte in Macometto crede. Il danno universal solo a lei giova, Sol nel pianto comun par eh' ella rida; E forse insidie e tradimenti or cova.

Rivolgendo fra se come m' uccida, O come al mio nemico e suo consorte Popolo occultamente apra le porte. Ma s' a quegli innocenti egli perdona, È di viltà, non di pietate effetto: Anzi altrove pur cerca ove la sfoghi; I rustici edifizi abbatte e spiana, E dà in preda alle fiamme i culti luoghi; Parte alcuna non lascia integra o sana, Ove il Franco si pasca, ove s'alloghi; Turba le fonti e i rivi, e le pure onde Di veneni mortiferi confonde.

Da tre lati fortissima era pria. Questi or Macone adora, e fu cristiano, Ma i primi riti anco lasciar non puote; Anzi sovente in uso empio e profano Confonde le due leggi a sé mal note: Ed or dalle spelonche, ove lontano Dal vulgo esercitar suol 1' arti ignote, Vien nel pubblico rischio al suo signore, A re malvagio consiglier peggiore.

Signor, dicea, senza tardar sen viene Il vincitor esercito temuto: Ben tu di re, di duce hai tutte piene Le parti, e lunge hai visto e provveduto. S' empie in tal guisa ogn' altro i propri uffici. Tomba fia questa terra a' tuoi nemici. Nel tempio de' Cristiani occulto giace Un sotterraneo altare, e quivi è il volto Di colei che sua diva e madre face Quel vulgo del suo Dio nato e sepolto.

Dinanzi al simulacro accesa face Continua splende: Or questa effigie lor, di là rapita, Voglio che tu di propria man trasporte, E la riponga entro la tua meschita: Sarà fatai custodia a queste porte: Tra mura inespugnabili il tuo impero Sicuro fia per novo alto mistero. Tosto n' avvisa il re, eh' alla novella Di lui si mostra fieramente irato; Ed immagina ben eh' alcun Fedele Abbia fatto quel furto, e che sei cele.

Uman cedendo, autor sen creda il Cielo. E '1 mago di spiarne anco non resta Con tutte r arti il ver ; ma non s' appone: Che '1 Cielo, opra sua fosse, o fosse altrui, Celolla, ad onta degl' incanti, a lui. Tutto in lor d' odio infellonissi, ed arse D' ira e di rabbia immoderata, immensa: Morrà, dicea, non andrà 1' ira a voto, Nella strage comune il ladro ignoto.

Ma qual giusto io dico? È colpevol ciascun; né in loro schiera Uom fu giammai del nostro nome amico. Su su, fedeli miei, su via prendete Le fiamme e '1 ferro, ardete ed uccidete.

E non è chi la fuga o le difese, Lo scusar o '1 pregar ardisca o tente. Ma le timide genti e irresolute. Donde meno speraro, ebber salute. È il suo pregio maggior, che tra le mura D' angusta casa asconde i suoi gran pregi; E de' vagheggiatori ella s' invola Alle lodi, agli sguardi, inculta e sola. Amor; ma la riveli D' un giovenetto ai cupidi desiri. A lei, che generosa è quanto onesta.

Viene in pensier come salvar costoro. Move fortezza il gran pensier; V arresta Poi la vergogna e '1 verginal decoro: Con ischive maniere e generose: Non sai ben dir s' adorna, o se negletta, Se caso od arte il bel volto compose; Di natura, d' amor, de' cieli amici Le negligenze sue sono artifici.

Ma il fero aspetto intrepida sostiene. Vengo, signor, gli disse, e 'ntanto 1' ira Prego sospenda, e '1 tuo popolo affrene; Vengo a scoprirti, e vengo a darti preso Quel reo che cerchi, onde sei tanto offeso. Narra, ei le dice, il tutto: Il reo si trova al tuo cospetto; Opra è '1 furto, signor, di questo mano; Io r immagine tolsi; io son colei Che tu ricerchi, e me punir tu dèi.

Io vo' che tu mi scopra Chi die consiglio, e chi fu insieme all' opra. Sol consigliera, e sola esecutrice. È giusto; esser a me conviene, Se fui sola all' onor, sola alle pene. Ov' hai 1' immago ascosa? E r arderla stimai laudabil cosa. Signore, o chiedi il furto, o il ladro chiedi: Quel non vedrai in eterno, e questo il vedi. Or, questo udendo, in minaccevol suono Freme il tiranno, e '1 fren dell' ira è sciolto. Già '1 velo e '1 casto manto è a lei rapito; Stringon le molli braccia aspre ritorte.

Ella si tace; e in lei non sbigottito. Ma pur commosso alquanto è '1 petto forte; E smarrisce il bel volto in un colore Che non è pallidezza, ma candore.

Olindo anco v' accorse; Che, dubbia la persona, e certo il fatto. Venia che fosse la sua donna in forse. Se '1 fece, il narri. Io 1' ho, signor, furata. Io là, donde riceve L' alta vostra meschita e 1' aura e '1 die, Di notte ascesi, e trapassai per breve Foro, tentando inaccessibil vie.

A me r onor, la morte a me si deve; Non usurpi costei le pene mie: A che ne vieni, o misero innocente? Qual consiglio o furor ti guida o tira? Ho petto anch' io, eh' ad una morte crede Di bastar solo, e compagnia non chiede. Oh spettacolo grande, ove a tenzone Sono amore e magnanima virtute; Ove la morte al vincitor si pone In premio, e '1 mal del vinto è la salute!

Ma più s' irrita il re, quant' ella ed esso È più constante in incolpar se stesso. Credasi, dice, ad ambo; e quella e questi Vinca, e la palma sia qual si conviene. Sono ambo stretti al palo stesso, e vólto È il tergo al tergo, e '1 volto ascoso al volto. Questo dunque è quel laccio ond' io sperai Teco accoppiarmi in compagnia di vita?

Oh fortunati miei dolci martiri! Che non pensi a tue colpe, e non rammenti Qual Dio promette ai buoni ampia mercede? Soffri in suo nome, e fian dolci i tormenti; E lieto aspira alla superna sede.

Mira il ciel com' è bello; e mira il Sole, Ch' a se par che n' inviti e ne console. Un non so che d' inusitato e molle Par che nel duro petto al re trapasse: Tu sola il duol comun non accompagni, Sofronia; e, pianta da ciascun, non piagni.

Che di lontan peregrinando vegna. La tigre, che suir elmo ha per cimiero. Tutti gli occhi a sé trae: Onde la credon lei; ne il creder erra. Or quinci in arrivando a lei s' offerse L' apparato di morte a prima vista. Di mirar vaga, e di saper qual fallo. Condanni 1 rei, sospinge oltre il cavallo. Pur maggior sente il duol per chi non duolse; Più la move il silenzio, e meno il pianto. Senza troppo indugiare ella si volse Ad un uom che canuto avea da canto: Già di vietar lor morte ha in se proposto, Quanto potranno i preghi o 1' armi sue.

Pronta accorre alla fiamma, e fa ritrarla, Che già s' appressa, ed a' ministri parla: Son pronta, imponi pure, ad ogni impresa; L' alte non temo, e 1' umili non sdegno: Voglimi in campo aperto, o pur tra '1 chiuso Delle mura impiegar, nulla ricuso. Or che s' è la tua spada a me congiunta, D' ogni timor m' affidi e mi console; Non, s' esercito grande unito insieme Fosse in mio scampo, avrei più certa speme.

Sovra i nostri guerrieri a te concedo Lo scettro, e legge sia quel che comandi. Ella rendea cortese Grazie per lodi ; indi a parlar riprese: Faccia Ismeno incantando ogni sua prova. Trattiamo il ferro pur noi cavalieri; Quest' arte è nostra, e 'n questa sol si speri. Pur compiacer la volle, e '1 persiiade Ragione, e '1 move autorità di preghi. Abbian vita, rispose, e libertade; E nulla a tanto intercessor si neghi. Siasi questa o giustizia, ovver perdono, Innocenti gli assolvo, e rei li dono.

Avventuroso Ben veramente fu d' Olindo il fato, Ch' atto potè mostrar che 'n generoso Petto alfine ha d' amore amor destato. Va dal rogo alle nozze, ed è già sposo Fatto di reo, non pur d' amante amato: Volse con lei morire; ella non schiva. Poiché seco non muor, che seco viva.

Onde, com' egli volse, ambo in esigilo Oltre ai termini andar di Palestina. Ei, pur seguendo il suo crudel consiglio. Bandisce altri Fedeli, altri confina.

Oh come lascian mesti i pargoletti Figli, e gli antichi padri, e i dolci letti! Molti n' andaro errando, altri rubelli Férsi, e più che '1 timor potè lo sdegno. Oh quanto intender questo ai Franchi aggrada! Ma, perch' oltre il meriggio il Sol già scende, Qui fa spiegare il Capitan le tende. Quando duo gran baroni in veste ignota Venir son visti, e 'n portamento estrano. Ogni atto lor pacifico dinota Che vengon come amici al Capitano. Del gran re dell' Egitto eran messaggi,.

E molti intomo hanno scudieri e paggi. Pieghevoli costumi, e vario ingegno; Al finger pronto, all' ingannare accorto; Gran fabro di calunnie, adorne in modi Novi, che sono accuse, e paion lodi.

Ma verace valor, benché negletto, L di se stesso a sé fregio assai chiaro. Piccol segno d' onor gli fece Argante, In guisa pur d' uom grande e non curante: Che per 1' addietro ancor le palme e i regni- Da te conobbe e dai consigli tuoi; Il nome tuo, che non riman tra i segni D' Alcide, omai risuona anco fra noi; E la fama, d' Egitto in ogni parte.

Del tuo valor chiare novelle ha sparte. Ama il valore, e volontario elegge Teco unirsi d' amor, se non di legge. Eserciti e città vinti e disfatte. E, se bene acquistar puoi novi imperi, Acquistar nova gloria indamo speri.

Ch' ove tu vinca, sol di stato avanzi, Né tua gloria maggior quinci diviene; Ma r imperio acquistato e preso dianzi, E r onor perdi, se 'l contrario avviene. Ben gioco è di fortuna audace e stolto Por contra '1 poco e 'ncerto il certo e '1 molto. Finché r Asia per te non sia deserta: Dolci cose ad udire, e dolci inganni, Ond' escon poi sovente estremi danni. Che fortuna qua giù varia a vicenda.

Mandandoci venture or triste or buone; Ed a' voli troppo alti e repentini Sogliono i precipizi esser vicini. T' affida forse il re malvagio greco. Il qual dai sacri patti unito è teco? Tu da un sol tradimento ogn' altro impara; Anzi da mille, perchè mille ha tese Insidie a voi la gente infida, avara. Dunque chi dianzi il passo a voi contese. Per voi la vita esporre or si prepara? Chi le vie, che comuni a tutti sono. Quei che sparsi vincesti, uniti insieme Di vincer anco agevolmente credi; Sebben son le tue schiere or molto sceme Tra le guerre e i disagi, e tu tei vedi; Sebben novo nemico a te s' accresce, E co' Persi e co' Turchi Egizi mesce.

Vibra contra costei la lancia, e stringi La spada, e la vittoria anco ti fingi. Tu, eh' ardito sin qui ti sei condutto, Onde speri nutrir cavalli e fanti? L' armata in mar cura ne prende. Dai venti adunque il viver tuo dipende? Il mar, eh' ai preghi è sordo ed ai lamenti, Te solo udendo, al tuo voler si piega? Ch' ove la nostra armata in rotta pogna La tua, qui poi di fame il campo more ; E se tu sei perdente, indarno poi Saran vittoriosi i legni tuoi.

Che nove guerre a provocar v' esorti; Ma, qual nocchier che dai marini inganni Ridutti ha i legni ai desiati porti, Raccor dovreste omai le sparse vele. Né fidarvi di novo al mar crudele. Se '1 tuo re m'ama, e loda i nostri gesti, È sua mercede, e m' è 1' amor gradito. Liberi sensi in semplici parole. Solo acciocché ne fosse il calle aperto A quelle sacre e venerabil mura. Per acquistar appo Dio grazia e merto. Ma la sua man, che i duri cor penetra Soavemente, e gli ammollisce e spetra, CANTO SECONDO, 45 84 Questa ha noi mossi, e questa ha noi condutti, Tratti d' ogni periglio e d' ogni impaccio; Questa fa piani i monti, e i fiumi asciutti, L' ardor toglie alla state, al verno il ghiaccio ; Placa del mare i tempestosi flutti.

Stringe e rallenta questa a' venti il laccio: Quindi son V alte mura aperte ed arse, Quindi r armate schiere uccise e sparse; 85 Quindi r ardir, quindi la speme nasce, Non dalle frali nostre forze e stanche, Non dall' armata, e non da quante pasce Genti la Grecia, e non dall' armi Franche.

Purch' ella mai non ci abbandoni e lasce, Poco debbiam curar eh' altri ci manche. Chi sa come difende e come fere. Soccorso a' suoi perigli altro non chere.

Noi morirem, ne invidia avremo ai vivi ; Noi morirem, ma non morremo inulti: Né r Asia riderà di nostra sorte. Né pianta fia da noi la nostra morte. Ma s' al suo imperio la Giudea soggiace. De' regni altrui 1' acquisto ei non ci vieti, E regga in pace i suoi tranquilli e lieti. Chi la pace non vuol, la guerra s'abbia; Che penuria giammai non fu di risse: E ben la pace ricusar tu mostri.

Se non t' acqueti ai primi detti nostri. O sprezzator delle più dubbie imprese, E guerra e pace in questo sen t' apporto: Tua sia 1' elezione; or ti consiglia. Senz' altro indugio, e, qual più vuoi, ti piglia. Non attendendo che risposto fosse Dal magnanimo lor duce Goifrido. Ed, A guerra mortai, disse, vi sfido. Che parve aprir di Giano il chiuso tempio. Or riportate Al vostro re, che venga e che s' affretti; Che la guerra accettiam che minacciate: E s' ei non vien, fra 'l Nilo suo n' aspetti.

Poi che la tempra e la ricchezza e 'l fregio Sottilmente da lui mirati foro, Disse Argante al Buglion: Vedrai ben tosto Come da me il tuo dono in uso è posto. Reca tu la risposta; io dilungarmi Quinci non vo', dove si trattan 1' armi. La ragion delle genti e l' uso antico S' offenda, o no, ne 'l pensa egli, ne '1 cura. Senza risposta aver, va per l' amico Silenzio delle stelle all' alte mura, D' indugio impaziente; ed a chi resta Già non men la dimora anco è molesta.

Perché il cammin lor mostri, e li conduca Alla città eh' al gran passaggio è meta: Invocation of the Muse: Address to Alfonso The scene opens on the plains of Tortosa, where, after the capture of Antioch, the Crusaders lie encamped. Gabriel is sent from Heaven to bid Godfrey summon a council for the election of a commander- in-chief, and arouse the flagging zeal of the army, so that the great object of the war, the capture of Jerusalem, may be no longer neglected Godfrey's speech to the Council Peter the Hermit advises the election of a chief Godfrey is chosen by the Council, and hailed by the soldiery.

At daybreak on the morrow the host passes in review before its new leader The catalogne of the various nations and their chief captains. The French, whose leader, Ugo, has already perished, under Clotharius Robert and his Normans. The fair-haired Flemings, led by a second Robert, a thousand strong. Tancred the Norman, whose love for a fair Paynim adversary forms a romantic digression One small band of Greeks under Tatinus.

The last squadron of the cavalry, commanded by Dudon, is accompanied by Eustace, brother to Godfrey, Otto de' Visconti, Edward, an English baron, and his wife Gildippe, and Rinaldo The foot soldiers next march past with Raymond of Toulouse at their head.

Stephen of Amboise with five thousand. Alcastus with six thousand Swiss. Lastly, Camillo and his Romans bear the Papal standard in the rear Godfrey assembles the captains, and discloses his intention of marching forthwith on Jerusalem. His speech is received with en- thusiasm. On the morrow the Christian host begins its southward march. The King of Tripoli sends gifts, and Godfrey, leaving that city unmolested, leads his army by the sea coast, so that the fleets may supply pro- visions on the way.

Aladin, King of Jerusalem, hearing of the approach of the Crusaders, is filled with terror and impotent rage, which he would fain vent on the Christians in the sacred city; but fear restrains his intended slaughter, and he contents himself with devastating the fields, and poisoning the springs, of the surrounding country.

Then, having hastily repaired the ramparts of the city, and collected a mercenary force, he awaits the assault. Stanza 1, line i. This first stanza bears considerable resemblance to the opening of Virgil's Aeneid ; ' Arma virumque cano. Multa quoque et bello passus. Nouns that end in e in the singular may be either masculine or feminine. Pietose refers to the sacred object of the war. Godfrey ; conceming whom see on stanza 8. It will be ' of advantage to notice that the terminal accent in verbs is confined to the ist and 3rd persons of the future, and to the 3rd of the perfect, which last 'if not accented might be misunderstood for the present indicative.

The accent is in some cases probably due to the contrac- f ion from the Latin. Similarly Dante says, ' Fece con senno assai e con la spada.

This refers especially te the encbantments of Armida, and the maga Ismene. The name Libya was often applied by the Greeks and Romans to the whole of Africa. Here it means more particularly Egypt ; but in the Egyptian army that was defeated at Ascalon there were troops which had been drawn from the nations of the interior. Such combinations of prepositions are not uncommon in Italian. Thus ' incontro a,' 6. Perhaps in such cases one is rather an adverb than a preposition.

Although this is a reminiscence of Virgil's ' Musa mihi causas refera. He is said by some to address the Virgin Mary. For the formation of the plural of such words there is no invariable mie. Perhaps one of the best is that given by Robello v: Helicon, a mountain range in Boeotia, from which rose the streams Aganippe and Hippocrene, was sacred to Apollo and the Muses.

I cannot doubt that this desciiption was inspired by some picture. It reminds one forcibly of the Venetian masters, especially of Tintoretto. When we consider that the stanza was composed soon after a visit to Venice, and at no great distance from Venice, and at the very period when that ' fulmine della pintura ' as he is called on his monument in the Doge's Palace was at the zenith of his glory, the idea seems far from fanciful. Tasso here uses it in keeping with its originai sense.

Sai ohe là corre. Notice the indicative used in a dependent sentence; Rem. The Italians, as other nations, allow such rhymes as ' versi. See on Dante, Inf. This idea is from the Latin poet Lucretius i. Many Italian poets, Petrarch among the number, had with more or less earnestness raised their voices to incite new Crusades ; but few except Dante saw and lamented the ruin that was overwhelming their Church and Nation by means of internai divisions.

Unqua, ' ever ' ; Lat. This is no mere poetical exaggeration, for, in the times of Tasso, there existed great suspicion and alarm occasioned by the Ottoman kingdom that had established itself by force m Europe.

In the preceding century the Turks had captured Jerusalem, and during Tasso's life they had appearedmore than once before the walls of Vienna. The subject to ' conceda ' is ' il popol di Cristo,' Another reading is 'altri conceda,' which would mean ' one should grant.

Già '1 sesto anno. This is not historically true. The various streams of Crusaders crossed over in and Nicaea was taken on June 20, BetVveen that date therefore and the capture of Jerusalem on July 15, , only a little more than two years elapsed.

The action of the poem begins about May , when the Crusaders are on their way from Antioch to Jerusalem. The following graphic description of the taking of Nicaea, the ca,pital of Soliman, the Turkish Sultan, near the Propontis, is given by Gibbon. Before this city the French princes occupied their stations, and prosecuted their attacks without correspondence or subordination In the siege of Nice the arts and engines of antiquity were employed by the Latins: In the space of seven weeks much labour and blood were expended, and some progress, especially by Count Raymond, was made on the side of the besiegers.

In the moment of victory, or at least of hope, the crusaders, thirsting for blood and plunder, were awed by the imperiai banner that streamed from the citadel ; and Alexius guarded with special vigilance this im- portant conquest. The murmurs of the chiefs were stifled by honour or interest ; and after a halt of nine days they directed their march towards Phrygia. Tasso's expression, ' per assalto,' is therefore not strictly correct.

The 'art' with which Antioch was taken may be gathered from the following facts. But, during a short truce, the crafty and ambitious Bohemond, whom Gibbon well terms the Latin Ulysses, succeeded in gaining the traitorous confidence of a certain Armenian by name Phirouz ' Pirro,' canto vii. When ali had been arranged between the two, Bohemond brought the proposai before the council of Christian chiefs, claiming the sovereignty of Antioch as his reward.

But the honour, or the envy, of these knights rejected the treachery with scom, until, alarmed by the rumoured ap- proach of a vast Turkish army under Kerboga, they yielded to Bohe- mond's arguments. Phirouz, though suspected and narrowly eyed by the emir, concerted his plans with secrecy and despatch. His brother, who opposed his intentions, he stabbed and threw from a tower into the city moat. At a fixed hour the Christian army broke up their camp, and began, as it appeared, their southward march.

But during the night they retraced their steps in baste, and, after some hesitation, Bohemond and some of the boldest, scaled the city wall by means of a rope ladder, and were received by the renegade. In the rush that was then made the battlement, to which the ladder was fastened, gave way, and many fell from the lofty wall into the moat.

But, in spite of the confusion and dismay occasioned by this, several of the towers were seized by those who had already gained the summit, and a gate was at length burst open to admit the mass of the troops.

In a short time the whole of Antioch was in the hands of the Christians, except the citadel. The emir Cassano ii. With ungovernable riot they had soon consumed or de- stroyed ali the provisions in the city, and began to suffer from a second famine more terrible than the first. Many, both before and after the capture of Antioch, deserted the Christian camp, among whom were Hugh of Vermandois, Stephen of Chartres, and William Viscount of Melun, the ponderous strokes of whose axe had gained him the name of the Carpenter.

Even Peter the Hermit was discovered by Tancred in the act of stealing away, and was brought back again to the tent of Bohemond. In the extremity of their despair, with starva- tion within the city and a hostile force of , Turks surrounding their walls, the minds of the soldiery turned with wild fanaticism to the guidance of visionaries and impostors. One such, Peter Bartholemy, a priest of Marseilles, had been informed in a vision by St. Andrew that the lance-head which had pierced the side of the Redeemer lay buried beneath the aitar of St.

Peter's Church in Antioch. With a jugglery, which at other times would have been too transparent, the priest himself drew forth from a pit that had been prepared the head of a Saracen lance wrapped in silk and gold.

It was no time now for either leaders or people to question the grounds of their belief. In- flamed with the madness of religious enthusiasm, and goaded onward by despair, they burst forth from the gates, and while their excited feelings were stili further aroused by the apparition of St.

Maurice, who were seen issuing forth from the hills clad in white garments and resplendent arms, they fell upon the innu- merable hosts of their enemies and routed them with immense slaughter June 28, Peter Bartholemy was subjected to the painful ordeal of fire, through which he passed to ali appearance unscathed.

But he had received fatai injuries, and the next day he expired. Tortosa was a city it is now almost a mere ruin anciently called Antharadus, and Orthosia, lying nine miles or so to the north of Tripoli. Tasso is not historically correct when he makes the Crusaders spend the winter at Tortosa, for they spent it at Antioch, from which they did not move till May 13, Moreover, Tortosa was not stormed 'espugnata' , for it was abandoned by the inhabitants on the approach of the invading army.

In his Gerusalemme Conquistata Tasso moves the scene of this first canto from Tortosa to Caesarea, a much more important city. This passage is evidently inspired by Virgil Aen. But Tasso probably uses the word in a less definite way for the ' starry vault of heaven.

The following stanza, describing the throne of God, was added by Tasso in the Gerusalemme Conquistata, and is well worth quotation. Velano due la faccia a quel Vetusto; Due i pie, dufe van girando il seggio augusto. Volse from ' volgere. Boria, a form ' Siria. His father, Eustace, was of the noble race of the Counts of Boulogne ; his mother, a descendant of Charles the Great, inherited Brabant. In the war against the pope, Godfrey had been the first to scale the walls of Rome, and it was perhaps remorse for this act that drew him to join in the great Crusade.

It was by his prudence no less than by his courage that the Christian army was saved more than once from the dangers into which their follies and excesses had brought them. To relate ali the facts connected with him would be merely to reca- pitulate the principal events of the Crusade, which have been already sketched out, and will be described more fully as occasion offers.

It is enough to say bere that, accompanied by his brothers Baldwin and Eustace, he commanded about 80, foot and 10, borse, and, uniting as he did ali the eminent qualities of a commander — knowledge of men, of arms, and of language, together with impartiality and a naturai dignity — he was elected chief before the siege, and was offered the crown after the capture of Jerusalem — a dignity which he refused to accept in the city where the King of kings had worn a crown of thorns, contenting himself with the modest title of Baron and Defender of the Holy Sepulchre.

A fortnight after this he sallied forth from Jerusalem and secured his government by the total overthrow of the forces of Egypt at the battle of Ascalon. The reign, for such it must nevertheless be called, of Godfrey fell short of a year by five days, During this short period, among other praiseworthy actions, he composed a code of laws called the 'Assise of Jerusalem,' one of the most valuable treasures of feudal jurisprudence.

After his death his younger brother Baldwin was chosen king, and reigned for eighteen years. Desiare, and desirare are contracted for the Lat. Baldwin was by no means an equal of his brother Godfrey in great qualities. His ambition impelled him fraudulently to sieze upon Tarsus, which had already yielded to Tancred, whom he ejected by force.

After this he deserted the Crusaders' camp for a wild ex- cursion into the heart of Persia, and there founded a kingdom in Mesopotamia, with Edessa as his capital. As has been already stated, Baldwin succeeded Godfrey as king of Jerusalem. Tancred accompanied his cousin Bohemond to the Holy Land, where many heroic feats are accredited to him, such as having slain or dispersed five Moslems by whom he had been sur- prjsed alone on Mount Olivet.

The romantic episode that we shall find in st. In the siege of the Holy City he distinguished himself by his courage and by the dis- covery of the grove from which wood was procured for the machines. When the mass of the Crusaders had returned home, Godfrey retained for the defence oif the city only foot, and kpights under Tancred. In 1 1 1 2 he perished in an expedition against the Infidels, and was buried at Antioch in the porch of the church of St- Peter.

The longer form ' martiiizzare ' is commoner. Bohemond, son of Robert Guiscard, was endowed with an attractive person, a persuasive eloquence, and a courageous disposition, not however free from pride, vindictiveness, and cunning.

With Robert Guiscard he had at Durazzo and Larissa assisted in the discomfiture of the Greek Emperor, Alexius; but he was disinherited by his father, and had barely kept the small princedom of Taranto. He joined the Crusade from motives of ambition, or a love of adventure, rather than those of religious zeal.

His successful intrigues at Antioch bave been already related vi. After holding that city in his power for some years he was captured by the Turks, and kept a prisoner four years. He is said to bave escaped by the belp of a Moslem princess, Melial by name, and to bave returned to Italy where Pope Pascal II received him, and gave him the means to raise another army for the recovery of Antioch. Here he was besieged, and, having been abandoned by his troops, was forced to sign an ignominious peace with Alexius, and retiied to Taranto, where he died.

See the rule given on 2. He might borrow his name from a Rinaldo, with the Aquila bianca Estense, who vanquished, as standard-bearer of the Roman Church, the Emperor Frederick I. But this Rinaldo, and his exploits, are not less chimerical than the hero of Tasso. Brama is said to be connected with Greek Ppéfxeiv, to roar. The two meanings are interchanged in Latin ; for instance Ennius the poet uses ' latrare ' to bark in the sense of ' poscere ' to beg for.

He did not actually go to the Holy Land until four years after this. He too is introduced to glorifythe house of Este; and acts as a father towards his youthful nephew, inciting him by ' illustrious feats of ancient days.

For con- struction of scorti see Rem. Gabriel plays the part that Mercury held under the Olympian dynasty. Before z the article is often 'lo,' as 'lo zio,' 'gli zii.

The next line may allude to the period of luxury and idleness that had converted fellow- soldiers into mere boon-companions: For the rhyme see on 3. And makes it visible to human sight. Ali is really the plural of a sing. The common form in the sing. This is like Virgil's description of Mercury Aen.

Mount Lebanon is to the south of Tortosa, running parallel to the coast. Tortosa, see on vi. Eoo is the Lat. Notice that the v of the imperfect is often dropped, as in the next line, ' avea. The reflective pronoun se is used in Italian almost as strictly as in Latin with reference to the principal subject of the sentence as in Thus ' il re fe andato con suo figlio a vedere il suo ritratto,' must mean ' the king has come with his son to see his own portrait.

Ali this passage about Gabriel is closely imitated from Virgil: Robello says, ' Le mot onde est souvent employé dans la poesie italienne, et quelquefois aussi dans la prose relevée, à la place de di cui, ou del quale, dal quale, pel quale, col quale, nel quale, au singulier ou au pluriel, au masculin ou au fóminin.

Just as we say ' Not that. Thus the 2nd pers. This rule however, which is given by the grammars, is liable to be broken on account of the accent, as bere. Il vedersi is the verbal noun, used bere as the nominative.

For punge see on Notice the change of mood, and the reason. In poetry many such shortened forms of the passive participles of the first conjugation are in use: Notice that in such perfects as ' posi ' the stem varies in some of the persons. The Christians of Jerusalem were treated much in the same way as the Jews bave been treated in Christian cities. They were subject to severe tributes, were obliged to inhabit a certain quarter of the city, and to wear a leathern girdle as the sign of their servitude.

The pilgrims also were treated with great cruelty and oppression. In Latin the expression would be the same: Or turn the force of arms another way. The ' disegno ' was of course the capture of Jerusalem. The argument is, ' if we wished to found an earthly empire, we should not bave come to Palestine. The meaning of these verses was said by Galileo to be ' strop- iata ' lame ; and certainly they are rather awkwardly expressed. Translate — ' Where he has but few, and these strangers in race and faith, amid the innumerable paynim host.

See Tasso's indignant address to Greece in stanza Ond', ' by which': Another reading gives ' e vittorie inver maravigliose. A word of fearing or doubt, as ' temere,' is generally followed by ' che' and the subjunctive. The ' che' is how- ever often dropped. When followed by ' che non,' or ' non ' alone, it sometimes as Lat.

Distinguish the form ' principi,' chiefs. This word must not be confounded with ' metà,' which is con- nected with ' mezzo ' medius. Some read ' eh' avrà. The succour from Egypt came after the capture of Jerusalem. See the description of the battle of Ascalon. Others again think he carne from Acherstadt in the neighbourhood of Liège, because in some chronicles he is called ' Petrus de Aeheris. In he made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and was then inspiredwith the desire of liberating the Holy City from the power of he infidels.

On his return he was favoured by Pope Urban II, and succeeded in arousing that extraordinary excitement through the greater portion of Europe, which resulted in the first Crusade.

His ill-fated invasion of Asia Minor, and his attempted desertion at Antioch, bave already been related. He is introduced several times in the poem x.

Cox, ' and in the annals of the time Peter is heard of no more. It seems a little strange that Peter should be described by Tasso as speaking with so much authority in the council so soon after the public disgrace that he had brought upon himself. The Calile origin of the expression may be doubted.

This seems to be imitated from Homer, Iliad ii. An evil thing is it when many bear rule. Onde must here be translated 'by whom. Thus we find ' speglio ' a poetical form of ' specchio. This is a palpable stroke of flattery for the house of Este — ' i più sublimi.

A suo senno, ' at his discretion. For pio, see on i. It is the epithet that Virgil constantly gives to his hero Aeneas. Mente means 'memory,' as in Dante Inf.

Thiis ' Ch' Amor di nostra dipartille,' ' which Love cut off them: Hugh, Count of Vermandois, was brother of Philip I of France, and one of the most conspicuous of the Crusading princes ; but, as Gibbon says, his appellation of 'the Great' was due not so much. After the capture of Antioch he was sent back as envoy to Constantinople, to remind Alexius of his promises, and seized the opportunity to retire to his native land.

Tasso, perhaps to draw a veil over the cowardice of the prince, states that he had already died ; but this is not true, for, after Jerusalem had fallen, he returned to the Holy Land on a new Crusade, and died of a wound at Tarsus. Fóro is another form of ' furo,' ' furono,' used chiefly in rhyme. The isle of France from which came the ' Franchi ' , between the Scine, the Oise, the Aisne, and the Marne, was the originai domain of the Capetian sovereigns, and the home of that dialect of the ' langue d'Oil,' which supplanted the dialects of Normandy, Picardy, and Burgundy, and became the French language.

With ' drappo ' are con- nected our ' drape,' ' draper,' ' trappings,' etc. Clotareo, or Clotaire, was afterwards killed by the Amazonian Clorinda xi. The right phrase would be, ' il dolce non far niente. His wayward and careless misrule ruined his people, and roused them to rebellion ; and when a sudden impulse led him to join the Crusaders, he pawned Nor- mandy to William for ten thousand marks, with which he might collect a body of foUowers.

In the Holy Land he distinguished himself, and it is related by some chroniclers that he refused the offered crown of Jerusalem. After the fall of the City of David, while on his journey home, he fell in love with an Italian lady, Sibyl, daughter of Count Conversano.

Robert, when he heard of this, hastened to England and landed with an army at Portsmouth. War was averted for a time; but soon after- wards Henry invaded Nonnandy.

Robert was taken prisoner at Tenchebray, and was confined by his unnatural brother for twenty- eight years in Cardiff castle, where he died. Spiegare is the Lat. It is probable that Tasso's Guglielmo is the former, both for other reasons and because the city of Grange is mentioned in the next stanza. He is again coupled with Adhemar in canto xi. He was the first who at the Council of Clermont took the badge of the Cross.

The historical fact, however, seems to be that he fell a victim to the epidemie that raged among the Cru- saders after the capture of Antioch. He was buried in the church of St. Peter, the same in which afterwards Tancred's remains weie laid. Grange anciently Arausio lies not far to the north of Avignon, in the department of Vaucluse.

Poggio is Le Puy, in the province of Vellai, called Podium in the middle ages. The s was thought to be ex Rem. Translate — ' Nor less skilled in arms. These 'Bolognesi' are from Boulogne-sur-mer. Godfrey, as commander-in-chief, has entrusted his company to his brother. Addur si vede, ' Is seen hringingup. Latino is used by Dante and Petrarch in this sense.

See Selections from the Inferno, Clar. It is probably used here purposely, to imply the ancient origin of the Suabian line, from which he was transplanted into that of Este ; but cp.

The Suevi occupied in ancient times the greater part of Germany, and comprised numerous tribes. Tacitus gives the name of Suevia to ali the country between the Danube and the Baltic. In the third century we find the name applied to a people living between the mouth of the river Maine and the Black Forest, and from them is derived the modem ' Suabia.

They lived in what is now the Tyrol and the Swiss Grisons. Dante , 'resia' haeresis , 'storia' historia , and other words, from which the first syllable has dropped out. Horace speaks of the Rhaeti in like terms of praise.

Here they spend the night in sport, and with malt and sour sorb-apples imitate draiights of wine. These are the Flemish and Dutch. Sponda in Latin means the frame of a bedstead or couch: Compare Goldsmith Traveller, And, sedulous to stop the coming tide.

Lift the tali rampire's artificial pride. While the pent ocean, rising o'er the pile, Sees an amphibious world beneath him smile. Pliny states that the ocean had swallowed up certain islands in these parts. His father Robert I had made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem to expiate the crime of having usurped the title that he bore. His son pur- chased absolution for an offence against the Church by assuming the Red Cross. George ' from his enemies. He remained in Palestine until the kingdom of Jerusalem was established, and then retumed to his native land, where he was killed by a fall from his horse.

A stuolo, ' in one band. The King of England at this time was William Rufus.

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Tomba fia questa terra a' tuoi nemici. Notice that the v of the imperfect is often dropped, as in the next line, ' avea.

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Before this time several adverse criticisms had been passed on his poem ; and those especially of Cardinal Antoniano, who had insinuated chàrges of heresy against him, preyed upon his sensitive mind. Day by day he became more melancholy, and suspicious of his friends a point in which he and poor Keats were alike , until at last he demanded an examination before the Inquisitor in order to ' clear up a doubt.

But his resolve was short- lived, and, having fled from Ferrara, he wandered on foot through ali Italy until he reached Sorrento. The story of his meeting with his sister is very touching — reminding one of Orestes and Electra. So many years had passed that Cornelia did not recognise him, and to prove her afFection he told her that Torquato was seriously ili.

At the news she fainted ; and was inconsolable until she learnt that her brother stood before her. Tasso stayed a short time at Sorrento, and then resumed his wanderings. Then a longing seized him to see Ferrara once more. The violent abuse which he poured on ali around him was intolerable on such an auspicious occasion, and we need not be surprised to hear that he was confined in the lunatic asylum of Sant' Anna.

For the next seven years he was a prisoner — in the most deplorable state of mind and body. In his more lucid mo- ments he would compose both verse and prose ; and at times he was allowed to visit the churches, or public spectacles. But he was often unfit for this, being tormented by the morbid creations of his own mind — spectres and apparitions — and, either by the indifFerence of the Duke or his own obstinacy, living in a state of starvation and nakedness.

It is difficult to say how far we are justified in our indignation against Alfonso: Among the adverse critics we may be surprised to find the celebrated Galileo.

In Prince Vincenzio Gonzaga came to Ferrara and obtained the release of Tasso, who immediately removed to Mantua. Here he published his Torismondo, and soon after- wards set off on foot, and passing through Bologna, after many hardships arrived at Rome, and thence continued his journey to Naples. After staying for a short time in the convent of Monteoliveto, he was persuaded to accept the hospitality of a young Neapolitan, Giambattista Manso after- wards his biographer , who received him at his villa on Po- silipo, the range that separates Naples from the Bay of Baiae.

In he went once more to Rome. The next year he paid a short visit to Ferdinand de' Medici at Florence. Once more, in , he left Rome for Mantua; but soon after we find him again at Naples, and then once more at Rome, whither he was invited by the Aldobrandini, and where he received a pension from Pope Glement Vili, and rooms in the Vatican. It was during this stay in Rome that he printed his Gerusalemme Conquistata, in which he endeavoured to carry out the suggestions of his critics, but which has always been regarded as inferior to the originai poem.

In the foUowing year he visited Naples for the last time, but did not stay there long, for he was recalled to Rome in order that he might at length receive, what had been his due so long, the laurei crown. But it was too late. He was buried, according to his express desire, in the church of the same saint; and his tomb was marked by a plain stone, on which the brethren of the monastery, at the appeal of Manso, inscribed the simple but appropriate epitaph— D.

Afterwards a magnificent sepulchre was erected by Cardinal Bevilacqua, of an illustrious Ferrarese family. A stili more splendid erection was begun in , and in the remains of the poet were deposited in it with great ceremony.

The Gerusalemme is written in ottava rima, the invention of which is attributed to Boccaccio. It consists of stanzas containing eight hendeltasyllabic lines, i. The feet are, in the typical line, ali iambic v - , but variation is allowed by the use of trochees - u or spondees — , as well as by slur, crasis, etc.

But in ali cases the tenth syllable is strongly accented, and, when followed by a final vowel, forms the weak rhyme, which is used by Tasso. Such a line is called verso piano. When curtailed of the final vowel it is a verso tronco. O Musa, tu, cke di caduchi allori Non circondi la fronte in Elicona, Ma su nel cielo infra i beati cori Hai di stelle immortali aurea corona, Tu spira al petto mio celesti ardori.

Sai che là corre il mondo ove più versi Di sue dolcezze il lusinghier Parnaso; E che '1 vero condito in molli versi I pili schivi alletJ: Emulo di Goffredo, i nostri carmi.

Intanto ascolta, e t' apparecchia all' armi. Vede Tancredi aver la vita a sdegno; Tanto un suo vano amor 1' ange e martira: Scorge in Rinaldo ed animo guerriero E spirti di riposi impazienti ; Non cupidigia in lui d'oro o d' impero.

Ma d' onor brame immoderate, ardenti: Scorge che dalla bocca intento pende Di Guelfo, e i chiari antichi esempj apprende. È tra Dio questi e l'anime migliori Interprete fedel, nunzio giocondo; Giù i decreti del Ciel porta, ed al Cielo Riporta de' mortali i preghi e '1 zelo. Goffredo trova, E in mio nome di' lui: Perchè la guerra oniai non si rinnova A liberar Gerusalemme oppressa?

Chiami i duci a consiglio; e i tardi mova All' alta impresa: Io qui r eleggo; e '1 fafan gli altri in terra Già suoi compagni, or suoi ministri in guerra. La sua forma invisibil d' aria cinse, Ed al senso mortai la sottopose: Infaticabilmente agili e preste: Sorgeva il novo Sol dai lidi eoi. Parte già fuor, ma '1 più nell' onde chiuso, E porgea mattutini i preghi suoi. Goffredo, ecco opportuna Già la stagion eh' al guerreggiar s' aspetta; Perchè dunque trapper dimora alcuna A liberar Gerusalem soggetta?

Tu i principi a consiglio ornai raguna; Tu al fin dell' opra i neghittosi affretta. Dio per lor duce già t' elegge; ed essi Sopporran volontari a te se stessi.

Oh quanta spene Aver d'alta vittoria, oh quanto zelo Dell' oste a te commessa or ti conviene! Resta Goffredo ai detti, allo splendore, D' occhi abbagliato, attonito di core. Se già bramava, or tutto arde d' imporre Fine alla guerra ond' egli è duce eletto: Lettere a lettre, e messi a messi aggiunge; Sempre al consiglio è la preghiera unita: Stese r insegne sue vittrici e '1 nome: Ed ai perigli di lontana guerra.

Fondando in Palestina un novo regno, Ov' abbia la pietà sede secura; Né sia chi neghi al peregrin devoto D'adorar la gran tomba, e sciorre il voto. Or, se da noi rivolte e torte soi;io Gontra quel fin che '1 donator dispose. A quei che sono alti principii orditi Di tutta r opra il filo e '1 fin risponda. Ora che i passi liberi e spediti, Ora che la stjigione abbiam seconda, Che tion corriamo alla città eh' è meta D' ogni nostra vittoria? Gli odono or su nel cielo anco i Celesti , Il tempo dell' impresa è già maturo: Avrà d' Egitto il Palestin soccorso.

Ma sorse poscia il solitario Piero, Che privato fra' principi a consiglio Sedea, del gran passaggio autor primiero. A quella autorità che, in molti e vafi D' opinion quasi librata, è pari. Onde sian compartite opre ed uffici.

S' era egli fermo, e si vedea davanti Passar distinti i cavalieri e i fanti. Suoni e risplenda la lor fama antica. Neil' isola di Francia eletti fóro.

Fra quattro fiumi ampio paese e bello. Poi duo pastor de' popoli spiegaro Le squadre lor, Guglielmo ed Ademaro. Sotto r elmo premendo i lunghi crini Esercita dell' arme or 1' uso fero. Dalla città d' Grange e dai confini Quattrocento guerrier scelse il primiero ; Ma guida quei di Poggio in guerra l'altro. Numero egual, ne men nell' armi scaltro. II 40 Baldo vin poscia in mostra addur si vede Co' Bolognesi suoi quei del germano, Che le sue genti il pio fratel gli cede Or eh' ei de' capitani è capitano.

Van con lui quattrocento; e triplicati Conduce Baldovino in sella armati. Conta costui per genitor latino Degli avi Estensi un lungo ordine e certo ; Ma german di cognome e di domjno. Nella gran casa de' Guelfoni è inserto: Acquisti ei giunse gloriosi e grandi. Fur cinquemila alla partenza; a pena De' Persi avanzo il terzo or qui ne mena. Terra di biade e d' animai ferace: Questi dall' alte selve irsuti manda La divisa dal mondo ultima Irlanda. Era pagana, e là venuta anch' ella Per r istessa cagion di ristorarse.

Amor eh' appena è nato. Già grande vola, e già trionfa armato. Questi arde, e fuor di spene: Gli ottocento a cavallo, a cui fa scorta. Lasciar le piagge di Campagna amene. Pompa maggior della natura, e i colli Che vagheggia il Tirren fertili e molli. Pendon spade ritorte all' un de' lati; Suonano al tergo lor faretre ed archi: Asciutti hanno i cavalli, al corso usati, Alla fatica invitti, al cibo parchi: E pur quasi a spettacolo sedesti.

Lenta aspettando de' grandi atti il fine. Or se tu se' vii serva, è il tuo servaggio Non ti lagnar giustizia, e non oltraggio. Son qui gli avventurieri invitti eroi, Terror dell' Asia, e fólgori di Marte. Taccia Argo i Mini, e taccia Artù que' suoi Erranti, che di sogni empion le carte; Ch' ogni antica memoria appo costoro Perde: Ei di virilità grave e maturo Mostra in fresco vigor chiome canute; Mostra, quasi d'onor vestigi degni,. Di non brutte ferite impressi segni.

Gernando v' è, nato di re norvegi, Che scettri vanta e titoli e corone. Ruggier di Balnavilla infra gli egregi La vecchia fama, ed Engerlan ripone ; E celebrati son fra i più gagliardi Un Gentonio, un Rambaldo, e duo Gherardi. Non fia eh' Obizo il Tosco aggravi al fondo Chi fa delle memorie avare prede; Ne i tre frati lombardi al chiaro mondo Involi, Achille, Sforza e Palamede: Ivi si fé costei guerriera ardita; Va sempre affissa al caro fianco ; e pende Da un fato solo e T una e 1' altra vita: Colpo eh' ad un sol noccia, unqua non scende, Ma indiviso è il dolor d'ogni ferita; E spesso è l'un ferito, e l'altro langue; E versa 1' alma quel, se questa il sangue.

Se '1 miri fulminar nell' arme avvolto. Marte lo stimi ; Amor, se scopre il volto. Nobilissima, fuga, e che 1' imiti Ben degna alcun magnanimo nipote. Tre anni son ch'è in guerra; e intempestiva Molle piuma del mento appena usciva. Reggea Tolosa, e scelse infra Pirene E fra Garonna e l'océàn suoi fanti. Non è gente robusta o faticosa, Sebben tutta di ferro ella riluce.

La terra molle e lieta e dilettosa Simili a se gli abitator produce. Impeto fan nelle battaglie prime; Ma di leggier poi langue, e si reprime. Lieto eh' a tanta impresa il Ciel sortillo, Ove rinnovi il prisco onor degli avi, O mostri almen eh' alla virtù latina O nulla manca, o sol la disciplina.

Parla al fedel suo messaggiero Enrico: Prence è de' Dani, e mena un grande stuolo Sin dai paesi sottoposti al polo. Che, già più d' una volta a noi promesso, È per ragion di patrio anco dovuto. Toglie, affrettando il suo partir, congedo; E tregua fa co' suoi pensier Goffredo.

Di trombe udissi e di tamburi un suono, Ond' al cammino ogni guerrier s'esorte. Non muro cinto di profonda fossa. Quante e quai sian le squadre ella ridice; Narra il nome e '1 valor de' più gagliardi; Narra i lor vanti, e con terribil faccia Gli usurpatori di Sion minaccia. Pende ad ogn' aura incerta di romore Ogni orecchia sospesa ed ogni mente; E un confuso bisbiglio entro e di fuore Trascorre i campi e la città dolente. Ma il vecchio re ne' già vicin perigli Volge nel dubbio cor feri consigli.

La deb il parte e la minore in Cristo, La grande e forte in Macometto crede. Il danno universal solo a lei giova, Sol nel pianto comun par eh' ella rida; E forse insidie e tradimenti or cova.

Rivolgendo fra se come m' uccida, O come al mio nemico e suo consorte Popolo occultamente apra le porte. Ma s' a quegli innocenti egli perdona, È di viltà, non di pietate effetto: Anzi altrove pur cerca ove la sfoghi; I rustici edifizi abbatte e spiana, E dà in preda alle fiamme i culti luoghi; Parte alcuna non lascia integra o sana, Ove il Franco si pasca, ove s'alloghi; Turba le fonti e i rivi, e le pure onde Di veneni mortiferi confonde.

Da tre lati fortissima era pria. Questi or Macone adora, e fu cristiano, Ma i primi riti anco lasciar non puote; Anzi sovente in uso empio e profano Confonde le due leggi a sé mal note: Ed or dalle spelonche, ove lontano Dal vulgo esercitar suol 1' arti ignote, Vien nel pubblico rischio al suo signore, A re malvagio consiglier peggiore.

Signor, dicea, senza tardar sen viene Il vincitor esercito temuto: Ben tu di re, di duce hai tutte piene Le parti, e lunge hai visto e provveduto. S' empie in tal guisa ogn' altro i propri uffici. Tomba fia questa terra a' tuoi nemici. Nel tempio de' Cristiani occulto giace Un sotterraneo altare, e quivi è il volto Di colei che sua diva e madre face Quel vulgo del suo Dio nato e sepolto. Dinanzi al simulacro accesa face Continua splende: Or questa effigie lor, di là rapita, Voglio che tu di propria man trasporte, E la riponga entro la tua meschita: Sarà fatai custodia a queste porte: Tra mura inespugnabili il tuo impero Sicuro fia per novo alto mistero.

Tosto n' avvisa il re, eh' alla novella Di lui si mostra fieramente irato; Ed immagina ben eh' alcun Fedele Abbia fatto quel furto, e che sei cele. Uman cedendo, autor sen creda il Cielo. E '1 mago di spiarne anco non resta Con tutte r arti il ver ; ma non s' appone: Che '1 Cielo, opra sua fosse, o fosse altrui, Celolla, ad onta degl' incanti, a lui.

Tutto in lor d' odio infellonissi, ed arse D' ira e di rabbia immoderata, immensa: Morrà, dicea, non andrà 1' ira a voto, Nella strage comune il ladro ignoto.

Ma qual giusto io dico? È colpevol ciascun; né in loro schiera Uom fu giammai del nostro nome amico. Su su, fedeli miei, su via prendete Le fiamme e '1 ferro, ardete ed uccidete. E non è chi la fuga o le difese, Lo scusar o '1 pregar ardisca o tente. Ma le timide genti e irresolute.

Donde meno speraro, ebber salute. È il suo pregio maggior, che tra le mura D' angusta casa asconde i suoi gran pregi; E de' vagheggiatori ella s' invola Alle lodi, agli sguardi, inculta e sola. Amor; ma la riveli D' un giovenetto ai cupidi desiri. A lei, che generosa è quanto onesta. Viene in pensier come salvar costoro. Move fortezza il gran pensier; V arresta Poi la vergogna e '1 verginal decoro: Con ischive maniere e generose: Non sai ben dir s' adorna, o se negletta, Se caso od arte il bel volto compose; Di natura, d' amor, de' cieli amici Le negligenze sue sono artifici.

Ma il fero aspetto intrepida sostiene. Vengo, signor, gli disse, e 'ntanto 1' ira Prego sospenda, e '1 tuo popolo affrene; Vengo a scoprirti, e vengo a darti preso Quel reo che cerchi, onde sei tanto offeso. Narra, ei le dice, il tutto: Il reo si trova al tuo cospetto; Opra è '1 furto, signor, di questo mano; Io r immagine tolsi; io son colei Che tu ricerchi, e me punir tu dèi.

Io vo' che tu mi scopra Chi die consiglio, e chi fu insieme all' opra. Sol consigliera, e sola esecutrice. È giusto; esser a me conviene, Se fui sola all' onor, sola alle pene. Ov' hai 1' immago ascosa? E r arderla stimai laudabil cosa. Signore, o chiedi il furto, o il ladro chiedi: Quel non vedrai in eterno, e questo il vedi. Or, questo udendo, in minaccevol suono Freme il tiranno, e '1 fren dell' ira è sciolto. Già '1 velo e '1 casto manto è a lei rapito; Stringon le molli braccia aspre ritorte.

Ella si tace; e in lei non sbigottito. Ma pur commosso alquanto è '1 petto forte; E smarrisce il bel volto in un colore Che non è pallidezza, ma candore. Olindo anco v' accorse; Che, dubbia la persona, e certo il fatto.

Venia che fosse la sua donna in forse. Se '1 fece, il narri. Io 1' ho, signor, furata. Io là, donde riceve L' alta vostra meschita e 1' aura e '1 die, Di notte ascesi, e trapassai per breve Foro, tentando inaccessibil vie. A me r onor, la morte a me si deve; Non usurpi costei le pene mie: A che ne vieni, o misero innocente? Qual consiglio o furor ti guida o tira? Ho petto anch' io, eh' ad una morte crede Di bastar solo, e compagnia non chiede.

Oh spettacolo grande, ove a tenzone Sono amore e magnanima virtute; Ove la morte al vincitor si pone In premio, e '1 mal del vinto è la salute! Ma più s' irrita il re, quant' ella ed esso È più constante in incolpar se stesso.

Credasi, dice, ad ambo; e quella e questi Vinca, e la palma sia qual si conviene. Sono ambo stretti al palo stesso, e vólto È il tergo al tergo, e '1 volto ascoso al volto. Questo dunque è quel laccio ond' io sperai Teco accoppiarmi in compagnia di vita? Oh fortunati miei dolci martiri! Che non pensi a tue colpe, e non rammenti Qual Dio promette ai buoni ampia mercede?

Soffri in suo nome, e fian dolci i tormenti; E lieto aspira alla superna sede. Mira il ciel com' è bello; e mira il Sole, Ch' a se par che n' inviti e ne console. Un non so che d' inusitato e molle Par che nel duro petto al re trapasse: Tu sola il duol comun non accompagni, Sofronia; e, pianta da ciascun, non piagni. Che di lontan peregrinando vegna.

La tigre, che suir elmo ha per cimiero. Tutti gli occhi a sé trae: Onde la credon lei; ne il creder erra. Or quinci in arrivando a lei s' offerse L' apparato di morte a prima vista. Di mirar vaga, e di saper qual fallo. Condanni 1 rei, sospinge oltre il cavallo. Pur maggior sente il duol per chi non duolse; Più la move il silenzio, e meno il pianto. Senza troppo indugiare ella si volse Ad un uom che canuto avea da canto: Già di vietar lor morte ha in se proposto, Quanto potranno i preghi o 1' armi sue.

Pronta accorre alla fiamma, e fa ritrarla, Che già s' appressa, ed a' ministri parla: Son pronta, imponi pure, ad ogni impresa; L' alte non temo, e 1' umili non sdegno: Voglimi in campo aperto, o pur tra '1 chiuso Delle mura impiegar, nulla ricuso. Or che s' è la tua spada a me congiunta, D' ogni timor m' affidi e mi console; Non, s' esercito grande unito insieme Fosse in mio scampo, avrei più certa speme.

Sovra i nostri guerrieri a te concedo Lo scettro, e legge sia quel che comandi. Ella rendea cortese Grazie per lodi ; indi a parlar riprese: Faccia Ismeno incantando ogni sua prova. Trattiamo il ferro pur noi cavalieri; Quest' arte è nostra, e 'n questa sol si speri.

Pur compiacer la volle, e '1 persiiade Ragione, e '1 move autorità di preghi. Abbian vita, rispose, e libertade; E nulla a tanto intercessor si neghi. Siasi questa o giustizia, ovver perdono, Innocenti gli assolvo, e rei li dono.

Avventuroso Ben veramente fu d' Olindo il fato, Ch' atto potè mostrar che 'n generoso Petto alfine ha d' amore amor destato. Va dal rogo alle nozze, ed è già sposo Fatto di reo, non pur d' amante amato: Volse con lei morire; ella non schiva. Poiché seco non muor, che seco viva. Onde, com' egli volse, ambo in esigilo Oltre ai termini andar di Palestina.

Ei, pur seguendo il suo crudel consiglio. Bandisce altri Fedeli, altri confina. Oh come lascian mesti i pargoletti Figli, e gli antichi padri, e i dolci letti! Molti n' andaro errando, altri rubelli Férsi, e più che '1 timor potè lo sdegno. Oh quanto intender questo ai Franchi aggrada!

Ma, perch' oltre il meriggio il Sol già scende, Qui fa spiegare il Capitan le tende. Quando duo gran baroni in veste ignota Venir son visti, e 'n portamento estrano. Ogni atto lor pacifico dinota Che vengon come amici al Capitano. Del gran re dell' Egitto eran messaggi,. E molti intomo hanno scudieri e paggi. Pieghevoli costumi, e vario ingegno; Al finger pronto, all' ingannare accorto; Gran fabro di calunnie, adorne in modi Novi, che sono accuse, e paion lodi.

Ma verace valor, benché negletto, L di se stesso a sé fregio assai chiaro. Piccol segno d' onor gli fece Argante, In guisa pur d' uom grande e non curante: Che per 1' addietro ancor le palme e i regni- Da te conobbe e dai consigli tuoi; Il nome tuo, che non riman tra i segni D' Alcide, omai risuona anco fra noi; E la fama, d' Egitto in ogni parte.

Del tuo valor chiare novelle ha sparte. Ama il valore, e volontario elegge Teco unirsi d' amor, se non di legge.

Eserciti e città vinti e disfatte. E, se bene acquistar puoi novi imperi, Acquistar nova gloria indamo speri. Ch' ove tu vinca, sol di stato avanzi, Né tua gloria maggior quinci diviene; Ma r imperio acquistato e preso dianzi, E r onor perdi, se 'l contrario avviene. Ben gioco è di fortuna audace e stolto Por contra '1 poco e 'ncerto il certo e '1 molto.

Finché r Asia per te non sia deserta: Dolci cose ad udire, e dolci inganni, Ond' escon poi sovente estremi danni. Che fortuna qua giù varia a vicenda. Mandandoci venture or triste or buone; Ed a' voli troppo alti e repentini Sogliono i precipizi esser vicini. T' affida forse il re malvagio greco. Il qual dai sacri patti unito è teco? Tu da un sol tradimento ogn' altro impara; Anzi da mille, perchè mille ha tese Insidie a voi la gente infida, avara. Dunque chi dianzi il passo a voi contese.

Per voi la vita esporre or si prepara? Chi le vie, che comuni a tutti sono. Quei che sparsi vincesti, uniti insieme Di vincer anco agevolmente credi; Sebben son le tue schiere or molto sceme Tra le guerre e i disagi, e tu tei vedi; Sebben novo nemico a te s' accresce, E co' Persi e co' Turchi Egizi mesce. Vibra contra costei la lancia, e stringi La spada, e la vittoria anco ti fingi. Tu, eh' ardito sin qui ti sei condutto, Onde speri nutrir cavalli e fanti?

L' armata in mar cura ne prende. Dai venti adunque il viver tuo dipende? Il mar, eh' ai preghi è sordo ed ai lamenti, Te solo udendo, al tuo voler si piega? Ch' ove la nostra armata in rotta pogna La tua, qui poi di fame il campo more ; E se tu sei perdente, indarno poi Saran vittoriosi i legni tuoi. Che nove guerre a provocar v' esorti; Ma, qual nocchier che dai marini inganni Ridutti ha i legni ai desiati porti, Raccor dovreste omai le sparse vele. Né fidarvi di novo al mar crudele.

Se '1 tuo re m'ama, e loda i nostri gesti, È sua mercede, e m' è 1' amor gradito. Liberi sensi in semplici parole. Solo acciocché ne fosse il calle aperto A quelle sacre e venerabil mura. Per acquistar appo Dio grazia e merto. Ma la sua man, che i duri cor penetra Soavemente, e gli ammollisce e spetra, CANTO SECONDO, 45 84 Questa ha noi mossi, e questa ha noi condutti, Tratti d' ogni periglio e d' ogni impaccio; Questa fa piani i monti, e i fiumi asciutti, L' ardor toglie alla state, al verno il ghiaccio ; Placa del mare i tempestosi flutti.

Stringe e rallenta questa a' venti il laccio: Quindi son V alte mura aperte ed arse, Quindi r armate schiere uccise e sparse; 85 Quindi r ardir, quindi la speme nasce, Non dalle frali nostre forze e stanche, Non dall' armata, e non da quante pasce Genti la Grecia, e non dall' armi Franche.

Purch' ella mai non ci abbandoni e lasce, Poco debbiam curar eh' altri ci manche. Chi sa come difende e come fere. Soccorso a' suoi perigli altro non chere. Noi morirem, ne invidia avremo ai vivi ; Noi morirem, ma non morremo inulti: Né r Asia riderà di nostra sorte. Né pianta fia da noi la nostra morte. Ma s' al suo imperio la Giudea soggiace.

De' regni altrui 1' acquisto ei non ci vieti, E regga in pace i suoi tranquilli e lieti. Chi la pace non vuol, la guerra s'abbia; Che penuria giammai non fu di risse: E ben la pace ricusar tu mostri. Se non t' acqueti ai primi detti nostri. O sprezzator delle più dubbie imprese, E guerra e pace in questo sen t' apporto: Tua sia 1' elezione; or ti consiglia.

Senz' altro indugio, e, qual più vuoi, ti piglia. Non attendendo che risposto fosse Dal magnanimo lor duce Goifrido. Ed, A guerra mortai, disse, vi sfido. Che parve aprir di Giano il chiuso tempio. Or riportate Al vostro re, che venga e che s' affretti; Che la guerra accettiam che minacciate: E s' ei non vien, fra 'l Nilo suo n' aspetti.

Poi che la tempra e la ricchezza e 'l fregio Sottilmente da lui mirati foro, Disse Argante al Buglion: Vedrai ben tosto Come da me il tuo dono in uso è posto. Reca tu la risposta; io dilungarmi Quinci non vo', dove si trattan 1' armi. La ragion delle genti e l' uso antico S' offenda, o no, ne 'l pensa egli, ne '1 cura. Senza risposta aver, va per l' amico Silenzio delle stelle all' alte mura, D' indugio impaziente; ed a chi resta Già non men la dimora anco è molesta.

Perché il cammin lor mostri, e li conduca Alla città eh' al gran passaggio è meta: Invocation of the Muse: Address to Alfonso The scene opens on the plains of Tortosa, where, after the capture of Antioch, the Crusaders lie encamped. Gabriel is sent from Heaven to bid Godfrey summon a council for the election of a commander- in-chief, and arouse the flagging zeal of the army, so that the great object of the war, the capture of Jerusalem, may be no longer neglected Godfrey's speech to the Council Peter the Hermit advises the election of a chief Godfrey is chosen by the Council, and hailed by the soldiery.

At daybreak on the morrow the host passes in review before its new leader The catalogne of the various nations and their chief captains. The French, whose leader, Ugo, has already perished, under Clotharius Robert and his Normans.

The fair-haired Flemings, led by a second Robert, a thousand strong. Tancred the Norman, whose love for a fair Paynim adversary forms a romantic digression One small band of Greeks under Tatinus. The last squadron of the cavalry, commanded by Dudon, is accompanied by Eustace, brother to Godfrey, Otto de' Visconti, Edward, an English baron, and his wife Gildippe, and Rinaldo The foot soldiers next march past with Raymond of Toulouse at their head.

Stephen of Amboise with five thousand. Alcastus with six thousand Swiss. Lastly, Camillo and his Romans bear the Papal standard in the rear Godfrey assembles the captains, and discloses his intention of marching forthwith on Jerusalem.

His speech is received with en- thusiasm. On the morrow the Christian host begins its southward march. The King of Tripoli sends gifts, and Godfrey, leaving that city unmolested, leads his army by the sea coast, so that the fleets may supply pro- visions on the way. Aladin, King of Jerusalem, hearing of the approach of the Crusaders, is filled with terror and impotent rage, which he would fain vent on the Christians in the sacred city; but fear restrains his intended slaughter, and he contents himself with devastating the fields, and poisoning the springs, of the surrounding country.

Then, having hastily repaired the ramparts of the city, and collected a mercenary force, he awaits the assault. Stanza 1, line i. This first stanza bears considerable resemblance to the opening of Virgil's Aeneid ; ' Arma virumque cano. Multa quoque et bello passus. Nouns that end in e in the singular may be either masculine or feminine. Pietose refers to the sacred object of the war.

Godfrey ; conceming whom see on stanza 8. It will be ' of advantage to notice that the terminal accent in verbs is confined to the ist and 3rd persons of the future, and to the 3rd of the perfect, which last 'if not accented might be misunderstood for the present indicative.

The accent is in some cases probably due to the contrac- f ion from the Latin. Similarly Dante says, ' Fece con senno assai e con la spada. This refers especially te the encbantments of Armida, and the maga Ismene.

The name Libya was often applied by the Greeks and Romans to the whole of Africa. Here it means more particularly Egypt ; but in the Egyptian army that was defeated at Ascalon there were troops which had been drawn from the nations of the interior. Such combinations of prepositions are not uncommon in Italian. Thus ' incontro a,' 6. Perhaps in such cases one is rather an adverb than a preposition. Although this is a reminiscence of Virgil's ' Musa mihi causas refera.

He is said by some to address the Virgin Mary. For the formation of the plural of such words there is no invariable mie.

Perhaps one of the best is that given by Robello v: Helicon, a mountain range in Boeotia, from which rose the streams Aganippe and Hippocrene, was sacred to Apollo and the Muses. I cannot doubt that this desciiption was inspired by some picture. It reminds one forcibly of the Venetian masters, especially of Tintoretto. When we consider that the stanza was composed soon after a visit to Venice, and at no great distance from Venice, and at the very period when that ' fulmine della pintura ' as he is called on his monument in the Doge's Palace was at the zenith of his glory, the idea seems far from fanciful.

Tasso here uses it in keeping with its originai sense. Sai ohe là corre. Notice the indicative used in a dependent sentence; Rem. The Italians, as other nations, allow such rhymes as ' versi.

See on Dante, Inf. This idea is from the Latin poet Lucretius i. Many Italian poets, Petrarch among the number, had with more or less earnestness raised their voices to incite new Crusades ; but few except Dante saw and lamented the ruin that was overwhelming their Church and Nation by means of internai divisions. Unqua, ' ever ' ; Lat. This is no mere poetical exaggeration, for, in the times of Tasso, there existed great suspicion and alarm occasioned by the Ottoman kingdom that had established itself by force m Europe.

In the preceding century the Turks had captured Jerusalem, and during Tasso's life they had appearedmore than once before the walls of Vienna. The subject to ' conceda ' is ' il popol di Cristo,' Another reading is 'altri conceda,' which would mean ' one should grant.

Già '1 sesto anno. This is not historically true. The various streams of Crusaders crossed over in and Nicaea was taken on June 20, BetVveen that date therefore and the capture of Jerusalem on July 15, , only a little more than two years elapsed. The action of the poem begins about May , when the Crusaders are on their way from Antioch to Jerusalem. The following graphic description of the taking of Nicaea, the ca,pital of Soliman, the Turkish Sultan, near the Propontis, is given by Gibbon.

Before this city the French princes occupied their stations, and prosecuted their attacks without correspondence or subordination In the siege of Nice the arts and engines of antiquity were employed by the Latins: In the space of seven weeks much labour and blood were expended, and some progress, especially by Count Raymond, was made on the side of the besiegers. In the moment of victory, or at least of hope, the crusaders, thirsting for blood and plunder, were awed by the imperiai banner that streamed from the citadel ; and Alexius guarded with special vigilance this im- portant conquest.

The murmurs of the chiefs were stifled by honour or interest ; and after a halt of nine days they directed their march towards Phrygia. Tasso's expression, ' per assalto,' is therefore not strictly correct. The 'art' with which Antioch was taken may be gathered from the following facts.

But, during a short truce, the crafty and ambitious Bohemond, whom Gibbon well terms the Latin Ulysses, succeeded in gaining the traitorous confidence of a certain Armenian by name Phirouz ' Pirro,' canto vii. When ali had been arranged between the two, Bohemond brought the proposai before the council of Christian chiefs, claiming the sovereignty of Antioch as his reward.

But the honour, or the envy, of these knights rejected the treachery with scom, until, alarmed by the rumoured ap- proach of a vast Turkish army under Kerboga, they yielded to Bohe- mond's arguments.

Phirouz, though suspected and narrowly eyed by the emir, concerted his plans with secrecy and despatch. His brother, who opposed his intentions, he stabbed and threw from a tower into the city moat. At a fixed hour the Christian army broke up their camp, and began, as it appeared, their southward march. But during the night they retraced their steps in baste, and, after some hesitation, Bohemond and some of the boldest, scaled the city wall by means of a rope ladder, and were received by the renegade.

In the rush that was then made the battlement, to which the ladder was fastened, gave way, and many fell from the lofty wall into the moat. But, in spite of the confusion and dismay occasioned by this, several of the towers were seized by those who had already gained the summit, and a gate was at length burst open to admit the mass of the troops.

In a short time the whole of Antioch was in the hands of the Christians, except the citadel. The emir Cassano ii. With ungovernable riot they had soon consumed or de- stroyed ali the provisions in the city, and began to suffer from a second famine more terrible than the first.

Many, both before and after the capture of Antioch, deserted the Christian camp, among whom were Hugh of Vermandois, Stephen of Chartres, and William Viscount of Melun, the ponderous strokes of whose axe had gained him the name of the Carpenter.

Even Peter the Hermit was discovered by Tancred in the act of stealing away, and was brought back again to the tent of Bohemond. In the extremity of their despair, with starva- tion within the city and a hostile force of , Turks surrounding their walls, the minds of the soldiery turned with wild fanaticism to the guidance of visionaries and impostors.

One such, Peter Bartholemy, a priest of Marseilles, had been informed in a vision by St. Andrew that the lance-head which had pierced the side of the Redeemer lay buried beneath the aitar of St. Peter's Church in Antioch.

With a jugglery, which at other times would have been too transparent, the priest himself drew forth from a pit that had been prepared the head of a Saracen lance wrapped in silk and gold. It was no time now for either leaders or people to question the grounds of their belief.

In- flamed with the madness of religious enthusiasm, and goaded onward by despair, they burst forth from the gates, and while their excited feelings were stili further aroused by the apparition of St.

Maurice, who were seen issuing forth from the hills clad in white garments and resplendent arms, they fell upon the innu- merable hosts of their enemies and routed them with immense slaughter June 28, Peter Bartholemy was subjected to the painful ordeal of fire, through which he passed to ali appearance unscathed.

But he had received fatai injuries, and the next day he expired. Tortosa was a city it is now almost a mere ruin anciently called Antharadus, and Orthosia, lying nine miles or so to the north of Tripoli. Tasso is not historically correct when he makes the Crusaders spend the winter at Tortosa, for they spent it at Antioch, from which they did not move till May 13, Moreover, Tortosa was not stormed 'espugnata' , for it was abandoned by the inhabitants on the approach of the invading army.

In his Gerusalemme Conquistata Tasso moves the scene of this first canto from Tortosa to Caesarea, a much more important city.

This passage is evidently inspired by Virgil Aen. But Tasso probably uses the word in a less definite way for the ' starry vault of heaven. The following stanza, describing the throne of God, was added by Tasso in the Gerusalemme Conquistata, and is well worth quotation. Velano due la faccia a quel Vetusto; Due i pie, dufe van girando il seggio augusto.

Volse from ' volgere. Boria, a form ' Siria. His father, Eustace, was of the noble race of the Counts of Boulogne ; his mother, a descendant of Charles the Great, inherited Brabant. In the war against the pope, Godfrey had been the first to scale the walls of Rome, and it was perhaps remorse for this act that drew him to join in the great Crusade. It was by his prudence no less than by his courage that the Christian army was saved more than once from the dangers into which their follies and excesses had brought them.

To relate ali the facts connected with him would be merely to reca- pitulate the principal events of the Crusade, which have been already sketched out, and will be described more fully as occasion offers. It is enough to say bere that, accompanied by his brothers Baldwin and Eustace, he commanded about 80, foot and 10, borse, and, uniting as he did ali the eminent qualities of a commander — knowledge of men, of arms, and of language, together with impartiality and a naturai dignity — he was elected chief before the siege, and was offered the crown after the capture of Jerusalem — a dignity which he refused to accept in the city where the King of kings had worn a crown of thorns, contenting himself with the modest title of Baron and Defender of the Holy Sepulchre.

A fortnight after this he sallied forth from Jerusalem and secured his government by the total overthrow of the forces of Egypt at the battle of Ascalon. The reign, for such it must nevertheless be called, of Godfrey fell short of a year by five days, During this short period, among other praiseworthy actions, he composed a code of laws called the 'Assise of Jerusalem,' one of the most valuable treasures of feudal jurisprudence.

After his death his younger brother Baldwin was chosen king, and reigned for eighteen years. Desiare, and desirare are contracted for the Lat. Baldwin was by no means an equal of his brother Godfrey in great qualities. His ambition impelled him fraudulently to sieze upon Tarsus, which had already yielded to Tancred, whom he ejected by force.

After this he deserted the Crusaders' camp for a wild ex- cursion into the heart of Persia, and there founded a kingdom in Mesopotamia, with Edessa as his capital. As has been already stated, Baldwin succeeded Godfrey as king of Jerusalem. Tancred accompanied his cousin Bohemond to the Holy Land, where many heroic feats are accredited to him, such as having slain or dispersed five Moslems by whom he had been sur- prjsed alone on Mount Olivet.

The romantic episode that we shall find in st. In the siege of the Holy City he distinguished himself by his courage and by the dis- covery of the grove from which wood was procured for the machines. When the mass of the Crusaders had returned home, Godfrey retained for the defence oif the city only foot, and kpights under Tancred.

In 1 1 1 2 he perished in an expedition against the Infidels, and was buried at Antioch in the porch of the church of St- Peter. The longer form ' martiiizzare ' is commoner. Bohemond, son of Robert Guiscard, was endowed with an attractive person, a persuasive eloquence, and a courageous disposition, not however free from pride, vindictiveness, and cunning.

With Robert Guiscard he had at Durazzo and Larissa assisted in the discomfiture of the Greek Emperor, Alexius; but he was disinherited by his father, and had barely kept the small princedom of Taranto. He joined the Crusade from motives of ambition, or a love of adventure, rather than those of religious zeal.

His successful intrigues at Antioch bave been already related vi. After holding that city in his power for some years he was captured by the Turks, and kept a prisoner four years. He is said to bave escaped by the belp of a Moslem princess, Melial by name, and to bave returned to Italy where Pope Pascal II received him, and gave him the means to raise another army for the recovery of Antioch.

Here he was besieged, and, having been abandoned by his troops, was forced to sign an ignominious peace with Alexius, and retiied to Taranto, where he died. See the rule given on 2. He might borrow his name from a Rinaldo, with the Aquila bianca Estense, who vanquished, as standard-bearer of the Roman Church, the Emperor Frederick I.

But this Rinaldo, and his exploits, are not less chimerical than the hero of Tasso. Brama is said to be connected with Greek Ppéfxeiv, to roar. The two meanings are interchanged in Latin ; for instance Ennius the poet uses ' latrare ' to bark in the sense of ' poscere ' to beg for.

He did not actually go to the Holy Land until four years after this. He too is introduced to glorifythe house of Este; and acts as a father towards his youthful nephew, inciting him by ' illustrious feats of ancient days.

For con- struction of scorti see Rem. Gabriel plays the part that Mercury held under the Olympian dynasty. Before z the article is often 'lo,' as 'lo zio,' 'gli zii. The next line may allude to the period of luxury and idleness that had converted fellow- soldiers into mere boon-companions: For the rhyme see on 3.

And makes it visible to human sight. Ali is really the plural of a sing. The common form in the sing. This is like Virgil's description of Mercury Aen.

Mount Lebanon is to the south of Tortosa, running parallel to the coast. Tortosa, see on vi. Eoo is the Lat. Notice that the v of the imperfect is often dropped, as in the next line, ' avea. The reflective pronoun se is used in Italian almost as strictly as in Latin with reference to the principal subject of the sentence as in Thus ' il re fe andato con suo figlio a vedere il suo ritratto,' must mean ' the king has come with his son to see his own portrait.

Ali this passage about Gabriel is closely imitated from Virgil: Robello says, ' Le mot onde est souvent employé dans la poesie italienne, et quelquefois aussi dans la prose relevée, à la place de di cui, ou del quale, dal quale, pel quale, col quale, nel quale, au singulier ou au pluriel, au masculin ou au fóminin.

Just as we say ' Not that. Thus the 2nd pers. This rule however, which is given by the grammars, is liable to be broken on account of the accent, as bere. Il vedersi is the verbal noun, used bere as the nominative. For punge see on Notice the change of mood, and the reason.

In poetry many such shortened forms of the passive participles of the first conjugation are in use: Notice that in such perfects as ' posi ' the stem varies in some of the persons.

The Christians of Jerusalem were treated much in the same way as the Jews bave been treated in Christian cities. They were subject to severe tributes, were obliged to inhabit a certain quarter of the city, and to wear a leathern girdle as the sign of their servitude. The pilgrims also were treated with great cruelty and oppression. In Latin the expression would be the same: Or turn the force of arms another way. The ' disegno ' was of course the capture of Jerusalem. The argument is, ' if we wished to found an earthly empire, we should not bave come to Palestine.

The meaning of these verses was said by Galileo to be ' strop- iata ' lame ; and certainly they are rather awkwardly expressed.

Translate — ' Where he has but few, and these strangers in race and faith, amid the innumerable paynim host. See Tasso's indignant address to Greece in stanza Ond', ' by which': Another reading gives ' e vittorie inver maravigliose.

A word of fearing or doubt, as ' temere,' is generally followed by ' che' and the subjunctive. The ' che' is how- ever often dropped. When followed by ' che non,' or ' non ' alone, it sometimes as Lat. Distinguish the form ' principi,' chiefs. This word must not be confounded with ' metà,' which is con- nected with ' mezzo ' medius.

Some read ' eh' avrà. The succour from Egypt came after the capture of Jerusalem. See the description of the battle of Ascalon. Others again think he carne from Acherstadt in the neighbourhood of Liège, because in some chronicles he is called ' Petrus de Aeheris. In he made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and was then inspiredwith the desire of liberating the Holy City from the power of he infidels. On his return he was favoured by Pope Urban II, and succeeded in arousing that extraordinary excitement through the greater portion of Europe, which resulted in the first Crusade.

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